Our research interests lie at the interface of biotechnology and nanotechnology. We are designing nanoscale polyvalent therapeutics and working on the molecular engineering of biosurfaces and nanostructures. The design of polyvalent molecules presenting multiple copies of a specific ligand represents a promising strategy to inhibit pathogens and bacterial toxins. We have contributed to a fundamental mechanistic understanding of polyvalent recognition and have designed polyvalent inhibitors based on various scaffolds, including polymers and liposomes, that are effective in vivo. We are designing polyvalent molecules and developing optogenetic tools to control the function of cells, including stem cells. We also have experience in controlling protein activity and stability by tuning its nanoscale environment. We have contributed to the identification of bacteriolytic enzymes and the design of antimicrobial nanocomposites.